Have you used clrmamepro to verify that your romsets match the MAME emulator you are using? It will be different to the version you run on the PC, so unfortunately it isnt a valid to test if they work on the PC.

There is a guide to verify the romsets here:

You can find the dat files here:

MAME versions and romsets on RetroPie

We can probably help more if you confirm which arcade emulator you are using on the Pi – this can usually be worked out by the folder you have chosen to put the romsets into.